iAir Induction - How it works.

Forced induction can be used to increase the power of an engine or its efficiency, or both, without much extra weight. The ambient air that the engine is normally ingesting enters the compressor inlet of turbocharger or supercharger that is inline along the air intake tract. This effectively increases the pressure and density of the air, which allows for a much greater percentage of oxygen per volume of air intake to be added to the air/fuel mixture. The effects are an increase to the effective capacity of the engine without an increase in physical size. The forced induction approach has the advantage that the intake pressure may be regulated according to the engine speed, thus providing power from extra capacity at high speed, but without wasting fuel at lower speeds. A Nitrous Oxide system is also a form of forced induction. A simple oxidizer is injected either directly (direct port) or by a single fogger...with fuel(wet nitrous system) or without fuel(dry nitrous system).Two of the commonly used forced induction technologies are turbochargers and superchargers. They differ mainly in the power source for the compressor. Turbochargers are driven by the exhaust gases of the engine, whereas superchargers are driven by a geartrain or belt connected to the crankshaft of the engine.

Strengths and weaknesses vary according to the method of forcing induction largely based upon the inherent design functions of both. A turbocharger acts as an obstacle to exhaust gases due to its placement in the exhaust system tract. A supercharger uses torque generated from the rotational mass internal to the engine through the crank pulley.


A turbo relies on the volume and velocity of exhaust gases to spool, or spin the turbine wheel. The turbine wheel is connected to the compressor wheel via a common shaft. The compressor wheel compresses the intake charge increasing the charge density by a large factor. The amount of time that it takes a turbocharger to reach the onset of boost is referred to as lag.


A supercharger is 'on' all of the time, meaning that it is capable of producing a linear increase of boost up until redline. It is easier to target a desired boost with a turbocharger as there are many forms of boost controllers that allow a user to adjust to desired boost fairly easily. In order to achieve desired boost with a supercharger, a larger or smaller pulley must be installed. A supercharger (also known as a blower) is an air compressor used to force more air (and hence more oxygen) into the combustion chamber(s) of an internal combustion engine than can be achieved at ambient atmospheric pressure.The additional mass of oxygen-containing air that is forced into the engine improves on its volumetric efficiency which allows it to burn more fuel in a given cycle - which in turn makes it produce more power.

A supercharger can be powered mechanically by belt, gear, or chain-drive from the engine's crankshaft. It can also be driven by a gas turbine powered by the exhaust gases from the engine. Turbine-driven superchargers are correctly referred to as turbo-superchargers - or more commonly as turbochargers.Volumetric efficiency in internal combustion engine design refers to the efficiency with which the engine can move the charge into and out of the cylinders. More correctly, volumetric efficiency is a ratio (or percentage) of what volume of fuel and air actually enters the cylinder during induction to the actual capacity of the cylinder under static conditions. Therefore, those engines that can create higher induction manifold pressures - above ambient - will have efficiencies greater than 100%. Volumetric efficiencies can be improved in a number of ways, but most notably the size of the valve openings compared to the volume of the cylinder and streamlining the ports. Engines with higher volumetric efficiency will generally be able to run at higher RPM, and thus power, settings as they will lose less power to moving air in and out of the engine.